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Advanced Biomaterials and tissue engineering

A biomaterial is a substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose, either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair, or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As emerging nanomaterials with excellent biocompatibility besides outstanding physical, chemical, and biological properties Graphene-based materials have led to new approaches to regenerative biomaterials science and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering embraces the potential of recreating and replacing defective body parts by advancements in the medical field. Loss of tissue or organs caused by injury or disease is a serious health problem that negatively affects the patient’s life. Traditional surgical treatments use the patient’s tissues to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs or use allografts of certain organs. However, these traditional methods face limitations, in particular the lack of suitable organs and tissue donors, and thus tissue engineering has been seen as a promising way forward. Tissue engineering utilizes different scaffold materials to control cell proliferation, differentiation, etc., and to stimulate the extracellular matrix of the target tissue to provide a suitable microenvironment for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to produce biologically functional tissues graphene-based materials can be successfully employed in creating the perfect scaffold for a range of organs, starting from the skin through to the brain. Scaffolds are essential components for the regeneration of tissues in 3D cell culture. From the mechanical aspect, scaffolds assist to withstand external pressures and give structural support to the tissue to be regenerated.